**THIS was done by a student in 1999. She got so far as to contact the University Publishers who said they would take this on. Since then, there has been no movement to speak of and issues on textbooks keep growing. Students are having to buy new textbooks regularly, which is making recent books obsolete and unable to be re-sold or reused. There still is not a universal effort to at least print these textbooks on recycled content, chlorine free and double sided copied books. This has a huge impact on global environmental issues with textbooks being printed on virgin paper is depleting our forests and creating other compromises to our world ecosystem. Ironically enough, textbooks are for students to learn how to be contributing citizens of a healthy global society.

This is a great issue that can be revived for Earthday, campus wide or even on a national level. The information is still relevant.



Currently, 90% of the world’s paper is manufactured from wood pulp, causing the pulp and paper industry to emerge as the largest single industrial wood consumer in the US and in the world.  It takes 2 to 3.5 tons of trees to make one ton of paper.  Making paper uses more water per ton than any other product in the world.  It also produces high levels of air and water pollution to make a product that is usually used once and thrown away. 

UO Zero Waste Program embarked on a research project to investigate the use of recycled content paper in textbooks. The project had three goals: 
·          to investigate paper usage in textbook production
·          to develop grassroots strategies that stimulate demand for use of recycled content material in university press productions
·          to create a toolkit for use on campuses nationwide that provides information and resources for faculty and students on how to stimulate demand for publishing practices with less environmental impact

The resulting University Press Toolkit compiles information and resources for understanding university press paper issues.  In researching and networking with paper, printing and environmental experts, interest was stimulated nationwide. University presses are a significant consumer of the pulp and paper industry, contributing to the demand on forests for paper and wood products.  They publish millions of books and scholarly work.  Few currently use alternatives to virgin wood fibers in their projects.

In this research, the UO Zero Waste Program sought out people and processes within the publishing industry that are committed to finding sustainable ways to reduce the environmental impact of publications.  Here’s what was found:
·          There are individuals and companies within the publication industry making concerted efforts to use materials with the least environmental impact including; printers, paper manufacturing companies, and alternative paper suppliers.
·          There are people within the university press community working to make publication projects more environmentally sustainable, and others interested in collaborative efforts to make it happen.
·          The demand for publications with least environmental impact must come from several sides: printers, publishers, editors, professors and students.
·          It is crucial to understand particular university press publishing processes to know where change in paper procurement policies can take place.

The purpose of the toolkit is to stimulate action within campus communities action that influences professors and paper procurement stakeholders to demand tree-free or recycled content paper in university press publications.  As students, faculty and members of the campus community, we can stimulate the demand for use of alternatives to virgin wood fibers in on-campus publications, and generate grassroots action nationwide to promote environmentally sustainable publishing practices.  As institutions of higher education, universities have become leaders for global and environmental stewardship. Publications from university presses can reflect qualities of environmental stewardship if there is a demand it.

Much of the research and resources that evolved through the toolkit development are compiled below.



“The forests fall victim to our passion and comfort and inability to control our numbers.  We have taken it upon ourselves to decide how much forest the planet needs and how much we need.  Godspeed for the day when the forest will decide the issue of our numbers.”

--Anatoly Lebedev, Member of Congress, Primorskii Region, Russia

Since the invention of the printing press in the 1450’s, the history of paper-making has shown an ever increasing demand for paper, often outpacing the production of pulp which fuels it. Glatfelter Pulp Wood Company ( www.glatfelter.com ), one of the world’s largest pulp and paper companies, produces an average of 1600 tons of paper per day between three mills! That doesn’t even include all of Glatfelter’s mills, as well as thousands of other companies worldwide.

Currently, 90% of the world's paper is manufactured from wood pulp, causing the pulp and paper industry to emerge as the largest single industrial wood consumer in the US and in the world (from the 1998 North American Pulp & Paper Fact Book ) and the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization.  And while it takes 2 to 3.5 tons of trees to make one ton of paper, pulp and paper is the 5th largest industrial consumer of energy in the world, using as much power to produce a ton of product as the iron and steel industry. Making paper uses more water per ton than any other product in the world as well. It also produces high levels of air and water pollution all to make a product that is usually used once and thrown away.

There does not exist enough wood fiber to supply the ever-growing appetite of the global pulp and paper industry. The industry itself no longer debates this issue with environmentalists; even they accept that we all face a looming wood fiber shortage. Pulp and paper is a $107 billion dollar industry, which accounts for about 85% of nationwide revenues for wood products, making it one of the nation’s top income-generating industries. This ostensibly indestructible industry cannot be ignored; our global economy revolves around it and is reliant upon it.

As technology has advanced in leaps and bounds, so many of us have hoped the use of electronic equipment in our offices, schools, and homes would diminish this demand. However, these cyber-driven machines have actually increased our consumption. Hewlett-Packard estimates that 860 billion pieces of paper were spit out of fax machines, copiers, and printers in 1996. In 1997 the overall consumption of copier paper by the Federal Government alone (one of the US's single largest consumers of office paper) amounted to a total of 20.1 billion sheets. In some countries, including the US, paper accounts for nearly 40% of all municipal solid waste despite the overwhelming misconception that we are a recycling nation. No one could have imagined 100 years ago the extreme devastation that both society’s insatiable consumption and industry's rapid growth could have projected onto our forest ecosystems. As forests are being depleted of their trees, there are many related consequences that have far-reaching implications much worse than the barren landscape we so often witness now. Unless demand shifts to other products and other fibers, we will live on a planet without native forests and the biological controls they offer us.

Please peruse the following links for research, information and action strategies.


Where does the paper that you read in the form of books come from? 

To make the connection between university presses and forests, we must trace the chain of hands that the paper passes through before you get the final product. To begin, let’s say you are a student, and you just bought an expensive textbook from the bookstore--a book that is authored by the professor of your class.  How did it get from manuscript to bookstore textbook?
·          When your professor was finished writing, he/she submitted a proposal to various publishers who are recognized for taking on projects with similar interests.
·          The acquisitions editor at a particular publication house (i.e., a university press) becomes interested in your professor’s writing, and has the project reviewed by different academic boards to ensure that the research is sound, and that it is worthy of publication.
·          The publication house decides to publish the project based on the board reviews.
·          The acquisitions editor submits the project to the manuscript editing department of the publication house.
·          The manuscript editing department copy edits the project, then sends it to the production department.
·          The production department typesets the project, and chooses a printer.
·          The production department sends the typeset manuscript to the chosen printer.
·          The printer does the printing and bookbinding.
·          The book is published and distributed by a university press.

On one of the first pages of your book, a publishing company is listed: Cambridge University Press ( www.us.cambridge.org ), Harvard University Press ( www.hup.harvard.edu ), and Cornell University Press ( www.cornellpress.cornell.edu ) are a few examples that are commonly used.  When the university presses contract to printers, they usually let the printer order their own paper from their own sources, thus keeping the overall costs low for everyone involved.  So, quite surprisingly, most presses don’t actually work with the raw paper your textbook is created on, and therefore don’t know where that paper came from or what kinds of fibers were used in its production.

Where does the printer get the paper? 
There are paper mills, like Fort James ( www.fortjames.com ), who buy pulp from the open market.  They make paper, and sell it to paper manufacturers, like Glatfelter ( www.glatfelter.com ).  Glatfelter then sells the paper to different printing companies, usually through a distributor.  Thompson-Shore ( www.thomson-shore.com ) is an example of a well-known book printing company.   

Although printers usually have contracts with specific printers, customers sometimes order paper through outside distributors or merchants, and have the printers use the paper they specify.  Distributors and merchants obtain their paper from paper manufacturers like New Leaf Paper ( www.newleafpaper.com ), Lyons Falls ( www.lyonsfalls.com ) or Weyerhaeuser ( www.weyerhaeuser.com ) Many paper manufacturers provide their own pulp as well (i.e., Lyons Falls). You probably will not find the company name of the paper that your book was printed on anywhere in the book, because they are not a part of the copyright—usually just the university presses are listed. 

Where does the paper pulp come from?
The pulping companies obtain the wood ingredients for making pulp from various timber companies and pulp from post-consumer paper products. Timber companies, such as Willamette Industries , either own land from which their loggers harvest trees with pulping in mind, or obtain contracts to harvest timber initially for lumber products and then use the leftover wood chips for pulping. These trees are a part of public or private forest lands, with various laws and regulations governing the harvesting of each.

This paper chain is not a simple process to understand. In many cases, the understanding of relationships between one entity and the next are blurred due to the fact that many of these companies are multi-faceted, engaging in several of the key processes that turn forests to paper.

The structural basis of paper is cellulose, the principal structural material in plant cells. Throughout the ages cellulose has been extracted from wood, papyrus, flax, cotton, hemp, various grasses, sugar cane, and several other fibrous plants for the manufacture of paper and other pulp-derived products. The use of wood as a source of pulp dates from the late 19th century, when it replaced cotton as the dominant raw material for paper and remains the primary source today. In general, the longer the cellulose fibers are, the stronger the paper product will be.  Coniferous trees (softwoods) such as pines and Douglas-firs have fibers nearly twice the length, and thus strength, of deciduous trees (hardwoods) such as oaks. It is for this reason that softwood fibers are preferred for strong paper and paperboard, such as grocery bags and boxes, whereas hardwood fibers are preferred for smooth paper production.  Using a blend of hardwood and softwood fibers, such as oak and pine, gives the ideal strength and consistency of common notebook paper. 

Pulp mills get the necessary fibers in various forms from different resources, including raw timber from timber companies, wood chips that are excess waste from lumber companies, and recovered paper that has been recycled by consumers. In the pulp making process, cellulose fibers must be separated from other structural elements in the wood such as lignin. Since lignin is brown in color, the whiter the paper needs to be the more lignin must be extracted. Thus, wood chips or recovered paper are “cooked” with water and chemicals until the cellulose fibers separate from each other and from the other structures in the wood. The cellulose pulp is then sprayed onto a large plastic screen where the water can drain out and the extracted cellulose remains to partially dry. The pulp is then pressed and heated by giant felt rollers, and the final product rolled into reels that contain a length of about 35 feet of paper and weigh over 20 tons. These paper reels are then shipped out to any company that buys raw paper, such as university presses.

Existing regulations govern each stage of timber harvest.   There is a common process modified by local regulations that is generally followed. When timber companies are contracted to harvest wood for lumber companies or pulp mills, a contract is drawn up specifying the logging conditions, including which trees are to be removed, which are to remain, what structures need to be built, among many other conditions.  Using bulldozers and skidders (a skidder is a machine much like a bulldozer but built with the capability of transporting debris through the forest), loggers construct roads, skidtrails, stream crossings, landings, and other structures necessary for the export of harvested timber. The trees are then felled and dragged from the forest to a central processing area, called a landing, using the skidder. At the landing the trees are sorted and prepared for transport to mills or storage facilities.  In the case of timber harvest for the pulping industry, sometimes in-woods chippers are used so that the wood chips can be created on-site and delivered directly to the pulp mill.


Throughout the history of timber harvesting, many types of logging have evolved with a wide range of effects on the ecosystem. Clear cutting, seed tree harvesting, thinning, selective harvesting or salvage harvesting have all been implemented at various times with different management results in mind, often with various detrimental effects on the forest. The implications of these damages can be observed not only in forest ecosystems, but aquatic ecosystems and human populations downstream as well.


As the life support of the forest ecosystem, soil integrity is the first aspect to be affected by logging, often leading to the greatest overall extent of environmental damage. As road construction takes place to export harvested timber, bare mineral soil rich in nutrients and microbial life is exposed in some places and compacted in others.  This double-edged sword is quick to cut away at forest health for many reasons. Primarily, road pathways gets compacted to such a great extent by heavy equipment that the infiltration of water into the soil surface is completely stopped, a condition known as impervious soil. Since water is not able to penetrate the soil surface, there are immediate and drastic effects on water runoff and watershed quality within that site. Impervious soil not only leads to greater volumes of runoff, it drastically increases the velocity, duration, and frequency of that water flow. This situation is amplified by harvested sites where trees and vegetation that normally soak up the water have been removed, destroyed, or slash burned. A recent case study by Dennis Harr at the University of Washington showed that clear cut sites produced 90% more water runoff than plots in mature nearby forests, and even young replanted forests produced up to 40% more water runoff than mature nearby forests.

Considering the results from Harr’s study and where the water from the runoff must flow, it is not surprising that flooding is directly related to timber harvesting. As stream volume increases so drastically due to greater volumes of water runoff, downstream sites get compounded effects because the further you are downstream the more tributaries and runoffs there are contributing to the river volume. It was reported after record precipitation in Oregon and Washington in the 1990-1991 season that downstream flooding was exacerbated by clear cutting of the upper reaches of the watersheds in the National Forests of the Cascades. Every river in Washington except the Nisqually, where no logging occurred, flooded that year.

With a greatly increased volume and velocity of water runoff at a site, top soils across the forest floor and exposed mineral soil (created from road construction) are eroded and quickly transported downhill and deposited into streams. This process of sedimentation flushes the necessary nutrients and minerals from the soil directly into streams, not only degrading soil qualities but also creating extensive damage to the river ecosystem. The creation of stream crossings has been a source of extensive sedimentation as well, especially in poorly designed crossings.

The Bull Run watershed that serves Portland, Oregon with drinking water has been severely impacted by stream sedimentation.  In the 1890’s the watershed was placed off limits to all entry, including logging, because it was to be protected as the city’s water source. In 1958 logging commenced in the watershed, and 11 years later the federal Public Health Service recommended the water be filtered to remove sediment. Today, Portland is installing filtration equipment costing over $200 million, not to mention the cost to maintain the system

When the trees surrounding a stream or river are harvested, there are disastrous results because the degradation of these areas, designated as riparian zones, leads to the greatest potentials of stream sedimentation. Riparian vegetation is present, it effectively serves as a natural water filter of runoff before it enters a stream. By stopping some sediment and debris from entering the stream ecosystem, riparian zones play an integral protection role in the stream ecosystem. When these areas are harvested, sedimentation increases immensely and drastically affects the river ecosystem. Not only does riparian vegetation help to buffer stream ecosystems from sedimentation, the broad tree canopies provide shade that helps keep the passing water at ideal temperatures.  Fallen leaves from these trees also supply an energy source for aquatic life by providing a food and energy source for microorganisms that decompose leaf matter. With a plentiful stock of microorganisms, there will be an abundant supply of larger critters that feed on microorganisms, and thus a large number of fish that feed on the critters- and now an intricate food web is spun. So when riparian zones are harvested or destroyed by poor logging techniques, the forest and stream ecosystems are affected at many levels.

Another problem that the logging industry has manifested is the spread of fungal diseases.  Fungi of all sorts are found is forest soils everywhere in the world, a great percentage actually promote forest health through interactions with their communities.  However, some can be severely detrimental to the strength and health of certain tree species, such as Port Orford Cedar Root Rot and White Pine Blister Rust. Under normal conditions most soil fungi are able to spread a few meters per year, thus keeping their detrimental effects within a limited space. Fungal diseases can be dispersed by logging equipment as well. When soil is overturned during road construction and harvesting, it can stick to the wheels of the skidders and bulldozers, and likewise can fall off anywhere that machinery travels. Thus, harmful soil fungi can be dispersed across broad ranges, including non-native areas where the effects can be amplified by the infection of nonresistant trees.

As a final note on the detrimental effects of logging, species biodiversity is greatly reduced because wildlife habitat is destroyed. Particular species of birds, insects, fungi, and other forest animals inhabit specific portions of a characteristic forest. For instance, some birds only nest in old growth snags and some insects inhabit only specific softwood species at particular developmental stages. Selective harvesting and clear cutting take out specific species or take out all species in an area, thus destroying habitat area for a great amount of organisms.

Water runoff, sedimentation, riparian degradation, fungal disease spread, and loss of wildlife habitat are all severe effects of poor forest management practices. Over the course of the last decade the importance of our natural resources has been realized and federal intervention has occurred to make timber companies responsible for their actions. Many regulations, such as the EPA’s Best Management Practices have forced loggers to implement ecological measures. For instance, leaving buffer zones in riparian areas helps maintain river quality, and constructing stream crossings perpendicular to rivers minimizes sedimentation. The implementation of water bars has also begun in some harvested sites that are prone to great amounts of runoff. Water bars are basically mounds of soil running laterally across a hill that help to divert water runoff toward more forested areas where vegetation root mass and topsoil layers help soak it up. While many other measures that minimize the disastrous effects of harvesting have been implemented at every stage, the process of timber harvesting is slowly evolving toward a mind frame that accounts for both economic and environmental sustainability.


Although alternatives exist, the pulp and paper industry still depend on trees as a primary source for pulp production.  These trees come from lands of private ownership, as well as state and federally owned land.  Over the years, clear-cut logging and other poor harvest practices have greatly degraded the overall health of forest environments.

However, logging practices cannot just come to a halt.  Many consumer products come from the wood of forests, and many individuals and communities are dependent on the salaries created from the forest product industry.  However, the global population is increasing exponentially.  An increasing population inevitably leads to an increase in demand for things that are used and consumed by humans.  With only 5% of native old-growth forests remaining throughout the US, concern is mounting in regards to their federal protection against human impact.  It is true that trees grow back and are considered by some to be a renewable resource, but can they renew as fast as human demand will increase for wood?  Trees may be renewable, but forests may not—many wildlife species need old growth forests to survive.  Can consumer demand still be met while considerations for forest sustainability and healthy forest ecosystems are taken into account? 

Possibilities exist.  One way to lower impact and demand on forests is to return to conventional means of paper production by using fibers from other crop sources such as kenaf, hemp, and flax.  Incorporating post-consumer, recycled fibers in paper consumption is also an important step that is being implemented by many businesses and consumers of paper products.  This transition away from the use of virgin tree fibers can be a long-term process for university presses, but will eventually become a regulation rather than an exception with the diminishing forest supply.  Although some presses have created policies stimulating an increase in the use of recycled fibers incorporated in their publication practices, many have yet to incorporate alternative fibers in their paper choices. 

The shift from virgin tree fibers to alternative resources will inevitably be a gradual one, and forest certification is a means to ensure environmentally sound publishing while this shift takes place.  In making a commitment to use certified paper and wood products, university presses make a public statement of their commitment to healthy forest ecosystems, diversity and long-term forest productivity. 


For links to recycled paper explanations and terminology, check out the following links:

A comprehensive, downloadable brochure containing:
·          Reasons to buy recycled paper
·          The significance of recycled paper
·          Common myths about recycled paper
is available at http://www.conservatree.com/paper/PaperTypes/RecyBrochure.shtml



In creating a partnership among Lyons Falls Pulp and Paper,  Maple-Vail Book Manufacturing Group ( www.maple-vail.com), and a regional SmartWood ( www.smartwood.org ) certification initiative, Cornell University Press has pioneered a way to publish books on paper that has been certified to have come from a well-managed forest.   The SmartWood certification system works as a member of the Forest Stewardship Council ( www.fscus.org ) and thus is able to provide the FSC label for books that have been published using wood pulp from the forests managed by Lyons Falls. This is the first example of the creation of a paper grade that is of book publishing quality that is also FSC certified.

See the complete story on Cornell University Press.



FOREST STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL: An independent organization that promotes environmentally responsible management of the world’s forests by establishing a worldwide standard of recognized and respected Principles of Forest Stewardship used in conjunction with national and international laws.


SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY INITIATIVE: A certification system through the American Forest and Paper Association that provides member forest managers with a specific roadmap to expand the practice of sustainable forestry and performance through the developed Standard Objectives




Below are suggestions for promoting environmentally sustainable publishing practices within the campus community.  Students are incredible sources of energy and activism, and can be pioneers in consumer demand for more sustainable book publishing practices.

q       What textbook papers are available for university press publications?
q       What papers do particular printers offer?
q       Where does the pulp originate?

q       If there is a press on your campus, establish contact with the production manager. This person is most likely the one responsible for paper procurement issues and printing processes specific to their press publications, and can be a good source of information.
q       If there is not a press on your campus, find out where publishing services happen.  Is there another university press that publication projects go to?  Professors and college bookstores are good sources for this information.
q       Lobby professors and faculty to ask their publishers about the paper used in scholarly publications; encourage faculty to demand specific paper procurement standards in publication projects.

q       What paper does the press currently use?
q       Which companies supply the paper?
q       How is paper ordered?  Through suppliers, merchants, distributors?
q       What are the current costs, and in what terms?  This is good information to have when you contact alternative suppliers and they ask if you want costs in terms of sheets, rolls, etc.  In addition, you can share with them what the current costs of the press are and they can try to work with you on establishing a competitive price plan that your press will go for.
q       What are the alternative paper options?  Do your homework, and find paper suppliers and manufacturers that make papers that fit the specific needs of the university press. 
q       If price is an issue, think about ways that this can change—increasing consumer demand, buying paper in large quantities, collaborating with other presses to create cooperative buying clubs that can decrease paper prices. 
q       Understand the risks involved for university presses.  If the press insists that the financial risks involved in incorporating alternative papers are too costly, suggest doing a case study example!  They could complete a publishing project using one of the alternative papers that you have suggested and use it as a pilot study for problems and benefits (quality, cost, printing quality, etc.) of alternative papers.  This would be a useful tool for not only the university press community, but also for the paper manufacturer and printer as well. 

q       Create collaborations among the paper manufacturers, suppliers and your press.  If the press orders paper through a printer, include them in the collaborative effort as well.

q       Seek out individuals that can support you, are willing to work with you and can provide an active voice in various faculty and department activities.  Good places to start:
q       Environmental Studies
q       Journalism
q       Education
q       Public Planning
q       Business

q       Collaborate with activist groups, campus recycling programs, environmental organizations, student government groups—generate an interest for this issue in these groups.
q       An example of successful, diverse student collaboration:

At Indiana University ( www.indiana.edu ) a coalition was formed consisting of seven groups in an effort to make the campus old-growth free: the Bloomington Rainforest Action Group (the core group), the Student Environmental Action Coalition, the Environmental Management Association (a professional group comprised of graduate students from the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at IU), the Unite! (a social activist organization on campus), the Environmental Law Society (law students), Students for Responsible Business (a group from the Business School at IU), and the Indiana Public Research Interest Group.


q       Ask them to consider their requirements for books, and to seek alternative mediums (libraries, Internet) when environmentally sustainable books are not available.

You ask professorsÞprofessors ask publishersÞpublishers hear the message and consider providing alternatives to meet client demands. 

The process begins with YOUR action.  Your words do make an impact.

q       Paper people are friendly and generally willing to work with consumers to create more sustainable products.  Contact them and ask how you can best promote their products at your institution, and what they can offer specifically for university press publications and services.

The following petition is an example of an educational action strategy.  It can be used to gather signatures from students, faculty and staff members of a campus community in support of environmentally sustainable publishing and paper procurement policies.  With solid research, support from several professors, and student lobbyists, you can present your petition to the Senate Committee or similar governing organization at your campus. 



Currently, 90% of the world’s paper is manufactured from wood pulp, causing the pulp and paper industry to emerge as the largest single industrial wood consumer in the US and in the world.  It takes 2 to 3.5 tons of trees to make one ton of paper.  Making paper uses more water per ton than any other product in the world.  It also produces high levels of air and water pollution to make a product that is usually used once and thrown away.

University presses are a significant consumer of the pulp and paper industry, contributing to the demand on forests for paper and wood products. They publish millions of books and scholarly  work, and few (if any) currently use alternatives to virgin wood fibers in their projects. Universities, as institutions of higher education, serve to produce citizens of good stewardship for humanity and the planet.  Environmental sustainablility is a part of global stewardship and higher education.  University presses who distribute this knowledge should realize that this educational information should be distributed on paper that reflects qualities of environmental stewardship.

As students, faculty, and members of the university community, we demand university presses to reduce their environmental impact in their contribution to sustainability in higher education. We demand that university presses implement alternatives to virgin wood fibers in their press productions by using recycled, tree-free or certified paper in their publications.  Our means to higher education need to reflect our commitment to reducing our impact on forests and natural resources!

NAME                              ADDRESS                             SIGNATURE

paper and printing

look under paper and paper products, then printing and writing papers


list of environmental printers
(dead Link)

A great resource book that was distributed to the entire university press community.  It has lists of alternative papers available for specific press requirements, paper examples, and a detailed description of different alternative fibers available

a comprehensive list of papers, manufacturers and suppliers

this site contains a list of important paper terminology, as well as links to the company’s products and services


the publishing association that all UP’s are a member of

book manufacturer that many of the UP’s use

a printer that offers alternative papers for printing projects

paper supplier that many UP’s buy their paper from


American Forest and Products Association; the overarching organization whose membership includes many from the forest, paper and wood products industry

Sustainable Forestry Partnership offers publications on different certification systems and case studies of sustainable businesses

offers links and resources for more information on forest certification

a comprehensive list of certified wood products suppliers.  Searchable by product or by company name

Forest Stewardship Council web site  A major forest certification entity

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